Integrated Farming Of Makhana And Fish : Commercial cultivation of Makhana as a cash crop is mainly done in North Bihar (Mithilanchal) in India. It is in the lowland water areas of – Darbhanga, Sita, Saharsa, Supaul, Purnia, Araria, Kishanganj, Forbesganj, Katihar districts, besides Asom and West Bengal. From its traditional cultivation. Farmers get a net profit of up to Rs 48,960 per hectare per year and a net profit of up to Rs 1,01,110 . Its from the cultivation of equine cultivation i.e. Makhana-cum-fish and water chestnut.
After Makhana-cum-Fish Makhana, fish water chestnut produce as a secondary and tertiary crop, giving priority to Makhana as the main crop in the integrated aquaculture technology of Singhara.
The area under cultivation of Makhana is about 14,000 hectares. With this total production of 50,000 tonnes of Makhana Lava generate national and international trade of about Rs.550 crores. 80 percent of the total Makhana production obtain from the Mithilanchal region of Bihar State.
From where Makhana cultivation has been happening for a long time. In traditional methods, only a single crop of makhana take from the watersheds. Due to this, after its sowing, from August-September to mid-January, the water area remains empty. And aquatic weeds cover the entire water area.
On the other hand, in the integrated aquaculture of Makhana. The seeds of Makhana come to the surface of the water after germination due to the automatic removal of aquatic weeds from the pond to fish through the net.
In integrated aquaculture, the yield is also good due to the absorption of abundant nutrients every year due to the melting of the remains of Makhana plants in the pond. Natural diets of fish (phytoplankton, zooplankton, periphyton, and benthos) are also available. Due to this, there is no decrease in the production of fish. Even if there is no supply of supplementary feed.
Integrated cultivation of Makhana with scientific technology :
In this, along with makhana, carp fish farming and successful cultivation of water chestnut do in this area. Apart from this, vineyard vegetables like cucumber, pumpkin, bitter gourd, nanua, etc. cultivate by making scaffolds on the dams of the pond, and tomato, brinjal, cauliflower, etc. cultivate on the bunds. Alternative income can obtain by planting bananas, guava, papaya, lemon, etc. in fruit trees.
Farmers can earn extra profit by doing vegetable nurseries, vermicompost units, beekeeping, mushroom cultivation, shelter area vacant space or poultry, duck rearing, etc. in economical playhouses on dams.
Essentials for Integrated Cultivation of Makhana |Integrated Farming Of Makhana And Fish:
Integrated cultivation of Makhana does in those water areas which have dams around them. The average depth is 2-4 feet and there is a deposit of ' humus' on the foothills. The depth of the middle of the pond should be minimum of 5-6 feet. Makhana is not cultivated in the flowing water and deep pond. In case of low water level, a proper irrigation system is necessary. Proper arrangement of high bunds and bass equipment around the pond is also necessary to protect against floods. And heavy rains and to prevent the migration of accumulated fish. Black loam soil is more suitable for better production of Makhana.
Nutritional importance of makhana, water chestnut, and fish Makhana is available in the markets. In the form of a pure, natural, nutritious, and processed products like a dried fruit.
Makhana's raw slag contains 9.7 percent protein, 76.9 percent carbohydrate, 0.1 percent fat, 1.3 percent minerals (calcium 20 mg, phosphorus 90 mg, iron 1400 mg per 100 grams) and 12.8 percent moisture. The part remains- Roasted Makhana Lava contains protein of 9.5 percent, carbohydrate 84.9 percent, fat 0.5 percent, moisture 4%, and crude fiber 0.6 percent. 362 kg of makhana per 100 grams of raw slag and 382 kg from roasted makhana lava Calorie gives energy.
Integrated Farming Fish:
Fish is a nutritious diet. In which high-quality protein 30-45 percent, fat 0.2-22 percent, salt 1-2 percent, carbohydrate 1-3 percent, and moisture 70-80 percent found. The fresh fruits of water chestnut also contain carbohydrates 23.3 percent, protein 4.7 percent, minerals 1.1 percent, phosphorus 15 percent, iron 0.008 percent, vitamin 0.0009 percent, fiber 0.6 percent. And its dried fruit contains carbohydrates 65-75 percent, protein 13.4 percent, fat 0.8. Percentage, Mineral 3.1 percent, Phosphorus 0.44 percent, Iron 0.0024 percent found. Malnutrition can also be overcome by consuming these products.