What is Orchard Farming?
Orchard farming which means is the planting of timber and shrubs. You can additionally name orchard farming a fruit garden. The orchard consists of farming fruits and nuts for industrial purposes. Most orchard farming performs with a single range of fruits or nuts.
Orchard farming is usually accomplished place water is at an applicable level. Orchards establish ordinary rainfall and normal irrigation. If orchards do no longer get suitable water then orchards may damage.
For Orchard Farming, you have to select the proper area, and right soil kind and you have to pick out that vicinity in which water furnish is proper. Day by way of day Orchard farming organize in India and for that orchards, and mini tractors are additionally getting famous among Indian farmers.
131 million hectares (37 percent) of India’s total geographical area (329 million hectares) comes under a semi-arid climate. The semi-arid area spread mainly in northwest India and some parts of southern India. The highest semi-arid conditions in India are Maharashtra (19 percent), Karnataka (15 percent), Andhra Pradesh (15 percent), Rajasthan (13 percent), Gujarat (9.50 percent), Tamil Nadu (10 percent), Uttar Pradesh (7 percent) and Madhya Pradesh (6 percent). The main problems of semi-arid regions are the lack of moisture, poor soil and water quality, etc. The annual rainfall in these areas is 300-750 mm.
And the total evaporation is 2-3 times more. In the summer months (May-June), the temperature ranges from 44 to 50 °C with extreme heat. Fruit plants suitable for these areas should be tolerant to abiotic stresses.
The selection of fruit plants and their varieties is a very important subject for the semi-arid and semi-arid regions. The following points should keep in mind while selecting them:
Plants should be deep-rooted, Must remain dormant during summer, and Can produce good quality fruits with less water, Flowers and fruit set after monsoon rains should be resistant to salinity and alkalinity.
Propagation of fruit plants can do by both seed and vegetative methods. Propagation from seed results in longer fruiting time (7-10 years), longer tree length which makes it difficult to harvest the fruit, less production, and lower quality of fruits. Whereas by vegetative method Propagation takes less time (3-4) years to bear fruit.
The tree is short in length. Due to this, the spraying of medicines and harvesting of fruits becomes easy. Fruit production is high and of high quality. Therefore, propagation should do by the vegetative method. Propagation method, proper timing, and planting distance of fruit plants in semi-arid regions.
The following points should keep in mind while buying fruit plants:
- Plants should boy from reliable sources only. ,
- The appropriate variety should select according to the particular area. ,
- Plants should prepare by asexual method and by proper method .,
- Plants should be healthy. ,
- The plant should not be more than one year old. ,
- The plant must tag.
How to Orchard Farming?
- Choosing the proper location and site is one of the very important topics before planting an orchard. It should plan to keep in view the following criteria. ,
- The selected location should be suitable for the cultivation of fruit plants, so that the experience of the growers can take advantage of. One can also get the benefit of selling the products through cooperative organizations with other fruit growers. ,
- The suitability of the soil should assess by its fertility, the nature of the subsoil, and the depth of the soil. ,
- The selected place should have a proper drainage facility. There should be no more stagnation of water mainly in the rainy season. ,
- The area should be near to the market. There should be proper demand for the fruits to be grown and their varieties. ,
- The soil and climate should be suitable for growing the selected fruits and their varieties. ,
- There should be an adequate water supply for proper quality irrigation throughout the year. ,
- The selected place should connect by means of transport like rail and road. There should be the availability of workers. ,
- As far as possible the place should be near the owner’s residence. There should be the availability of inputs related to horticulture.
Variety Determination for Orchard Farming:
After deciding on a suitable place for orchard farming, you have to now determine the range of meals i.e. fruit or nut. These meals must determine on market demand and local weather adjustments due to the fact meals swiftly turn outdated. You need to additionally determine whether you are going to produce perishable or non-perishable food.
Production Best for Orchard Farming:
After range determination for your orchard farming, you have to now take a look at manufacturing fantastic due to the fact if you are producing the proper first-class of meals then demand for your meals will additionally increase. In food, farming satisfactory things the most.
The Layout of Orchard Farming:
Proper house for suitable improvement of bushes is necessary. The design of the orchard refers to the most variety of bushes per hectare. It is additionally the major step when we are speaking about orchard farming.
Efficient Use of Water:
Proper water is the essence of Orchard farming. If water provides sufficiently then your orchard turns fruitful and extra productive. So each time you go for orchard farming first of all tests the place your land is, there is a desirable provide of water and continually strive to pick out that area the place land is nearer to the water body.
It is your name to take a look at if your orchards are getting a desirable diet or not. Most of the diet furnish through the soil itself. And diet which wants is nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and others are iron, copper, zinc, boron, calcium, sulfur, etc.
Before orchard farming, you have to look into market demand. In that precise place, what is the market demand for your product, and what is the mindset of neighborhood humans in the direction of that product is additionally performs a vital position in farming.
Intercropping in orchards is an effective economic option, especially when money is not coming from the orchard. Fruit trees begin to bear fruit from the age of 4-5 years. Short-duration vegetables (tomato, brinjal, chili, okra, cauliflower, cucumber and crops (mustard, sesame, gram, moong, moth) and fruit plants (papaya and phalsa) can be grown in the garden.
Different Methods of Planting System and Planting Distance:
For example, there are square, rectangular, quincunx, hexagon, triangular, and paired row systems. All the methods have their merits and demerits, but square and rectangular systems are mainly adopted in arid and semi-arid regions.
Preparation of pits and planting saplings take out the trees and plants from the selected land and level it. So that proper drainage can do. There should be no stagnation of water mainly during the rainy season. According to the planting systems and crop varieties, the layout should do according to the appropriate distance. In April, a 1XIXI meter size pit should be dug at the specified site.
The pits should leave open for 15-20 days, so that the inoculum of pathogens and insects, eggs, pupae, etc., kills by heat. The pits fill with 1/3 part of the topsoil and 3/4 part of well-rotted manure (farm yard manure) and fertilizers.
Things to Do For Orchard Management:
Orchard wishes consistent irrigating, fertilizing, pruning, pesticides, and desirable weeds. Regularly caring for orchard bushes from wind damage, insects, pests, and undesirable grasses ought to manage regularly.
Fertilizer is for a speedy increase of trees. Fertilizing your tree is desirable but as you understand ‘Atisarvatravarjayet’ ability an extra of something is bad. Excessive fertilizer can kill your timber and your soil pleasant may also additionally get poor.
Irrigation is a desirable grant of water to flowers at everyday wished breaks. Proper irrigation helps to effectively develop plant life and in orchard farming acceptable irrigation is important. By exact irrigating your flowers, you get a fruitful result.
It is trimming timber from the vulnerable region and slender crotch angles. Pruning is vital for the nice boom of trees. Regular pruning makes your tree strong, reduces wind harm, and improves fruit quality.
Pesticides are elements that use to kill pests. Pests can harm your orchards so desirable care of your orchard requires well-timed use of pesticides.
Fruit orchards in India:
Orchard farming In India is very famous in many states. Dahanu city acknowledges as the orchard of India and locates in Maharashtra.
Apricots and Apple orchard:
State- Himachal Pradesh
Season- June to September
Himachal Pradesh is famous for Apricots and Apple orchards. These Apricots and apples furnish all over the world.
Season- January to May
Maharashtra is famous for orchard farming in India. Maharashtra is additionally known as the country of an orchard in India.
State- Meghalaya, and Maharashtra
Season- January to March
Strawberry orchards perform in Meghalaya and Maharashtra and provide all over the world.
State- Punjab, and Maharashtra
Season- October give up to February
Oranges are the fruit that absolutely everyone fortunately eats. It’s produced in Punjab and Maharashtra and provided worldwide.
State- Uttarakhand, and Bihar
Season- May to June
Uttarakhand and Bihar recognize as the Lychee orchard of India. Here lychee produce and furnished worldwide.
State- Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh
Season- May to July/August
Mangoes are the countrywide fruit of India. Alphonso, Dasheri, Langra, Badami, etc. are the sorts of mangoes.
Plums, Mulberries, and Jamuns orchard:
Season- March to July
Plums, Mulberries, and Jamuns are likable among youngsters in India. Punjab produces Plum, Mulberries, and Jamuns in India.
Season- December to March
Talasari Taluka of the Dahanu kingdom of Maharashtra is well-known for the Chikoo orchard in India. Maharashtra is additionally referred to as the nation of orchards in India.
Season- March to September
Pineapple produce in Manipur and furnished all over the world. Pineapple has more than one uses.
Peach orchard India:
State- Himachal Pradesh
Season- April to June end
Peach orchards are achieved in Himachal Pradesh and the peach is from April to June. It is very famous in India.